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Psychology and Crime Response: Andrienne Boyd

******* Please respond to the following statements below: (1,2) ***** Please number each statement response (1,2)***** ********* Please use and cite the TEXTBOOK: Vito, G. F., & Maahs, J. R. (2015). Psychology and Crime. In Criminology: Theory, Research & Policy (4th ed.),Burlington, M.A.: Jones & Bartlett Learning ****** CHAPTER 5 Pages 93-11******** 1. Psychologists have linked personality to criminal behavior by explaining how Nature vs. Nurture plays a huge role in our personality development. Our environment and how we interact with other people all stem from how we were raised and what we were taught. Nature relates to biology, and our genetic makeup and nurture relates to the environment and our upbringing. Things we see as children can be a learned behavior when we get older. Another way psychologists have related personality to criminal behavior was by Hans Eysenck personality theory. Eysenck theory focused on two dimensions, which were extraversion vs. introversion and stability vs. neuroticism. Extraverts are known as being loud and outgoing while introverts are often thought of as quiet and reserved. Eysenck associated states of arousal with the different personality traits and their need for excitement. Eysenck relates the need for arousal with criminal behavior. Freud’s personality theory relates to criminal behavior because it shows a distinction between the different levels and what each one entails. The ID is the primitive and instinctive component of personality. The Id is all about our personal wants and needs, sexual desires and aggressive behaviors. The ego is associated with the decision-making component but it also tries to satisfy the needs of the id, which can be a negative behavior. The superego includes values and morals of the society and your family. These morals and values are learned from parents and other family members. If your family doesn’t care about there values or morals this could result in you doing the same, which could result in criminal behavior if they are doing the same. 2. Many theories exist to explain the reason humans engage themselves in acts that are criminal in nature and defy laws. It stands to reason that the origin of this defiant behavior lies somewhere in the brain. More specifically, one’s intellectual capabilities may correlate with criminal behavior. An intelligence test, the intelligence quotient, was developed by Alfred Binet in the early 20th century to measure intellect. Though there remains debate over the test’s validity, it was determined by many studies that a link exists between IQ and criminal behavior. Now that the link has been verified, criminologists are trying to nail down whether or not the relationship is direct. An indirect relationship would indicate that the cause of the criminal behavior is the school culture or peer group of the offender. A direct relationship would indicate that one can not understand the difference between right and wrong or legal and illegal actions.